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# Physics resources for IGCSE or GCSE students

[Science home]

Revision sheets for IGCSE or GCSE physics. This series revision sheets are based on the IGCSE & GCSE syllabuses. Lots of formulas, definitions and key points to learn off. There are also accompanying test sheets to check your memorisation.

The idea is read the information and than print the quiz sheet and try the questions.

Revision Exercise six:

### Solids, liquids and gases

#### Units

unit of temperature : degrees Celsius (oC), kelvin (K),

unit of density kilogram/metre 3 (kg/m3)

unit of pressure, pascal (Pa)

Density and pressure

density = mass / volume

ρ = m / V

pressure = force / area

F / A

#### Change of state

a substance can change state from solid to liquid by the process of melting

a substance can change state from liquid to gas by the process of evaporation or boiling

particles in a liquid have a random motion within a close-packed structure

particles in a solid vibrate about fixed positions within a close-packed regular structure

#### Ideal gas molecules

Brownian motion, is random motion caused by the random motion of air molicules.

molecules in a gas have a random motion and that they exert a force and hence a pressure on the walls of the container

there is an absolute zero of temperature which is – 273 oC

the kelvin temperature = the Celsius temperature + 273

an increase in temperature results in an increase in the speed of gas molecules

the kelvin temperature of the gas is proportional to the average kinetic energy of its molecules

for a gas in a sealed container when the kelvin temperature increases the pressure increases.

the relationship between the pressure and kelvin temperature of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume:

p1/ T1 = p2/ T2

the relationship between pressure and volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature

p1V= p2V2

Quiz for revision exercise six: 3 stages of matter quiz

Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration.